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How do you quote what someone says in a quote

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How do you quote what someone says in a quote
December 01, 2018 1st Anniversary Wishes 4 comments

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Definition:Quotation marks (") are used to show that an author is using someone else's exact words—they may be the words of a person, a character, or a written source.

Use quotation marks only when quoting someone's exact words, either spoken or written. This is called a direct quotation.

"I prefer my cherries chocolate covered," joked Alyssa.
Jackie kept repeating, "Good dog, good dog!"
"How long will it take you?" asked Mom.

Placement of Quotation Marks

Place the opening quotation mark where the speaker's words start, and the closing quotation mark where the speaker's words end.

"I have wanted to buy my own truck for a long time," said Jordan.

If a quotation is more than one sentence long, place the first quotation mark where the quote begins, and the second one at the end of the last sentence. It's not necessary to put quotation marks around each individual sentence in the quote.

"I have been saving money for two years. I almost have enough for the down payment," Micah told him.

It's also important to remember that quotation marks close and then open again if the quote is interrupted.

"I guess I should start saving money, then," replied Jordan, "if I am ever going to buy one."

Definition: An indirect quotation is a sentence that reports what a speaker said or wrote, but it does not use the person's exact words. Indirect quotations do not need quotation marks.The word that often indicates that the statement is an indirect quotation.

Alyssa joked that she preferred her cherries covered with chocolate.
Jackie told her dog that she was a good dog.

Sometimes it may be difficult to tell whether a statement is a direct or indirect quotation, but the verb tense and word order can give you some clues.

Indirect: Mom asked how long it would take us to get to the Grand Canyon.
Direct: Mom asked, "How long will it take us to get to the Grand Canyon?"

Practice What You've Learned

You would quote the original with an "as cited by" mention. For example. Writing in his The Perennial Pilosophy, Huxley quotes Eckhart: "He.

El Estilo Indirecto – How to Quote Someone in Spanish

how do you quote what someone says in a quote

NOTE: (6/11/2013) The definitions of and in HTML have changed. For the latest advice on using these elements refer to cite and blockquote – reloaded

Given HTML’s roots in the academic world, it should be no surprise that quoting is well-accommodated in the elements and , with their optional attribute. In addition, there’s the element, which over the last nine years went from ‘semantic orphan element made good’ to one of the more contentious elements in HTML5. Let’s power up the endoscope and examine the scarring, starting with .

Quoting with #

We’ve become pretty familiar with here, as most of our articles feature excerpts from the HTML5 specification. Look, here’s one right now:
The element represents a section that is quoted from another source. — W3C HTML5 specification
Easy peasy, right? Nothing has really changed. Remember that as is a ‘block-level element’ (flow content) we can put most anything in it, including headers, images and tables, in addition to the usual paragraphs of text. There are a couple of slight differences in HTML5 though. is a sectioning root, meaning that any - elements it contains don’t become part of the document’s outline. Also, adding a single paragraph of text with no enclosing tags is now completely kosher. Here are some simple examples (apologies for the fake content): Historically, adding the source of a was a semantic conundrum. If you add it as content of the , then semantically it would become part of the quote, right? (and ) have a attribute for the URL of the quote’s source, to provide context. That’s hidden data, however, and despite the potential for exposing the attribute via CSS and/or JS, that’s not as useful as a visible link.

  It seems our long-running convention at HTML5 Doctor of using for attribution inside a is actually non-conforming. However the phrase in the spec that prevents it also prevents other common block quoting patterns, so the spec will probably change. Read my article problems and solutions, and submit feedback via the WHATWG email list, the comments here or to be via Twitter (@boblet) — your feedback will influence how the spec changes! I’ll update this article after the change, but until then be aware for attribution in a isn’t strictly valid, and may not be in the future either. The spec currently recommends including attribution in content surrounding the .

Hixie has given his feedback on my email, and it seems like our citations are still invalid. The official recommendation is to put the blockquote in a figure and add attribution in . Read the whole thread as there are some interesting comments. I’ll wait for the dust to settle a little yet…

HTML5 comes to our rescue with the element, allowing us to add semantically separate information about the quote. For example: Because of this semantically sound way to show the quote’s source, .
Even then, the attribute is probably only worth it if you can automate it (or you're just crazy OCD ;). We’ll return to in a bit, but let’s first probe into .

Inline quotations with #

is for quoting something inline within a section of prose:
The element represents some phrasing content quoted from another source. — W3C HTML5 specification
This means we can’t use for sarcasm or other non-quotation uses of quote marks (“”). In those cases, add punctuation manually. The spec continues:
Quotation punctuation (such as quotation marks) that is quoting the contents of the element must not appear immediately before, after, or inside elements; they will be inserted into the rendering by the user agent. — W3C HTML5 specification
As with , you can also add a attribute with a URL for the quotation’s source (subject to the above caveats against hidden data). If you’re not using these extra features though, it’s a toss-up as to whether is any better than just adding punctuation characters like “” as you type. Okay, let’s see some specimens: Let’s examine how to style these elements next.

Styling and #

Historically, browser support has been patchy for controlling the punctuation used by . Things have settled down now, so we can define nested, language-specific and even author-defined punctuation via CSS.
IEFirefoxSafariChromeOpera
Default punctuation¹8.0 “” ‘’1.5 “” ‘’2.0 "" 4.0? "" ''1.0? "" ''4.0 “” ‘’
with Unicode escapes8.01.55.1²11.0²4.0³
with glyphs8.01.55.1²11.0²4.0³
  1. Default support requires on and
  2. Webkit support has been weak, with "" and '' hard-coded until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11. Ref: WebKit bugs 6503 (fixed) and 3234 (new).
  3. Opera is buggy if you nest to a greater depth than quote pairs in your property (test case)
“Correct” punctuation is an intricate topic and varies depending on language, but it generally involves these characters:
GlyphDescriptionUnicode escapeEntityMacWindowsLinux
Left double quotation mark\201C-++
Right double quotation mark\201D--++
Left single quotation mark\2018-+++
Right single quotation mark\2019--+++
«Double left-pointing angle quotation mark\00AB-++
»Double right-pointing angle quotation mark\00BB--++
Single left-pointing angle quotation mark\2039--+-
Single right-pointing angle quotation mark\203A--+-
Double low-9 quotation mark\201E--+-
Single low-9 quotation mark\201A---
Narrow no-break space\202F---

If you’re using the UTF-8 (and you should be), we recommend you use the actual characters if possible, rather than the Unicode escapes in CSS or the entities in HTML. You can enter most of these using the keyboard — e.g. “ is - on Mac, + on Windows, and + on Linux. Avoid using ", ' or ` in place of “” and ‘’. The “narrow no-break space” is used inside French guillemets.

Most languages alternate between two kinds of punctuation as quotes are nested, such as “” and ‘’ in English. To specify nested quote pairs in CSS, we would write this: Unfortunately, browsers use the last quote pair in the property for more deeply nested quotations. Make sure you have enough levels by repeating quote pairs as necessary: WebKit had "" and '' hard-coded in the browser stylesheet until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11, which prevented and from working. The workaround is to define opening and closing punctuation manually, then override with and . While it’s a little more involved, that’s why we use this CSS on HTML5 Doctor: A more traditional English style uses an opening quote character before each paragraph of the quotation and a closing quote character on the last paragraph. You can do that with this CSS, but you’ll need to use for the ’s content.

When quoting a foreign language, we use the quotation marks of the surrounding language, so a Japanese quote in an English sentence still uses English quotation marks:

All he knows how to say in Japanese is (I don’t understand).

If you’re dealing with multilingual content, you can specify the property per-language: You can learn more about this CSS in the specification: CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. Okay, it’s time to put the rubber gloves on: is up next.

The rise and fall of #

’s rise to stardom as the semantic super-element #

In HTML 2 was . But in HTML 3.2 and HTML 4.01, was more loosely defined as
Cite: Contains a citation or a reference to other sources — HTML 4.01 specification
We can define “citation” as:
  • a reference to authority or precedent,
  • a quotation that’s being cited, or
  • a mention of someone or something
And “a reference to other sources” is even less specific [cue Jaws music]. The HTML 4.01 spec’s examples were:
As Harry S. Truman said… More information can be found in [ISO-0000]
Sadly, an example of an academic-style citation wasn’t included. Some standardistas enthusiastically adopted for its semantics, with the high point being Mark Pilgrim’s epic “Posts by citation” (the results of which are now sadly 404’ed). In those heady days, was used in three main ways:
  1. To refer to a person, generally in connection with some reference or as the source of a quote:
  2. To contain the title of a work being referred to or quoted from :
  3. To contain a full academic-style citation (title plus author, and maybe bibliographic information):
    • Historically this might also be marked up as:
    • or as Wikipedia does (with set to ):
“Wow, what an all-rounder!” I hear you say. “Is there anything can’t do?” The dirty secret of all this is the element has historically been semantics for the sake of semantics. So far, the only non-site-specific application of is browser default stylesheets, which format it with . This is not a bad thing, as using consistently on your own site allows you to do all kinds of fun stuff (as Pilgrim demonstrated). But in the past, it’s been used to refer to three related but quite different types of data: titles, full citations, and names. This makes web-wide use, such as by a search engine, tricky.

snorts too much semantics, checks into rehab #

So, in HTML5 this semantic over-achiever has ended up with a more … prosaic definition:
The cite element represents the title of a work (e.g. a book, a paper, an essay, a poem, a score, a song, a script, a film, a TV show, a game, a sculpture, a painting, a theatre production, a play, an opera, a musical, an exhibition, a legal case report, etc). This can be a work that is being quoted or referenced in detail (i.e. a citation), or it can just be a work that is mentioned in passing. — even if people call that person a piece of work — — W3C HTML5 specification
This restriction has been somewhat … unpopular. Arguments for using for names (now summarised on the WHATWG wiki) were addressed by Ian Hickson, who decided that historical use wasn’t enough to justify the wooly definition. Jeremy Keith’s 24 Ways article “Incite A Riot” called for civil disobedience and HTML 4.01-style -ing, but the HTML5 spec has not changed. The inrs are irate that there are two use cases that ’s new definition leaves semantically unfilled — to mark up speakers in a transcript or dialog, and to indicate the speaker or author of an inline quote (). The HTML5 spec adds semantic insult to injury by saying:
In some cases, the element might be appropriate for names; e.g. in a gossip article … In other cases, if an element is really needed, the element can be used.
By better defining , we increase the odds of getting usable data from it, though we now need different methods to cover these other uses. For now, it seems that these use cases aren’t specific enough to warrant new elements. Note that was never a general-purpose element for marking up a person. The still-born HTML 3.0 did try to introduce the element, but if you’ve ever used hCard to semantically mark up a person’s name, you’ll know that we’d need way more than just one element to do names justice. The POSH way of marking up a name is to use hCard (in microformats, microdata or RDFa), or just with a plain old link.

Get exd and quote stuff #

History and encouraging angry comments aside, let’s suture up and see some examples of HTML5-style action: In this example, the author and book title are only connected by proximity. You could connect them more explicitly using the hProduct microformat, RDFa’s GoodRelations, or to really bleed on the edge even Schema.org. Note that you can’t use the now-Google-approved attribute here, as George R. R. Martin is being referred to and isn’t writing the article. If you just wanted to style the author’s name, you could use (gossip column style) or with whatever CSS you like.

All together now #

Oay, let’s start mixing things up on the operating table and show some examples of with and :

Conclusion #

If you’ve made it this far, congratulations! You’ve now learned more about citing and quoting in HTML5 than you wanted to know ;) But don’t keep the knowledge to yourself — let us know in the comments what you think. We’d also love to hear how you’re using , , and in HTML5. If you share your code snippets, remember to escape them!

Updates #

  1. : It seems our long-running convention at HTML5 Doctor of using for attribution inside a is in keeping with the part of the spec, but not with the part. We’re investigating…
  2. : Hixie confirmed that our use of is currently non-conforming — can currently only be included in if it’s quoted content. However, the phrase “content inside a blockquote must be quoted from another source” also forbids other common changes and additions to block quotes, so I’m going to see if it can be changed.
  3. : I wrote an article problems and solutions about these problems, and initial feedback from Hixie is that there are legitimate issues, and he’ll review feedback via the WHATWG email list. So, please do that! You can also leave feedback in the comments here or ping me on Twitter (@boblet). Also, don’t miss Jeremy Keith’s excellent commentary “Citation needed” on the issue (watch out for those s though ;) )
  4. : I’ve added keyboard shortcuts for punctuation characters to the punctuation table, for default (typically US) keyboards.
  5. Added a note about Hixie’s reply to the article.

Oli Studholme

WATCH THE VIDEO ON THEME: How to Integrate Quotations In Writing Essays-APA or MLA
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Wait a minute…

how do you quote what someone says in a quote

MLA Formatting Quotations

Summary:

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.

Short quotations

To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.

Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:

According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.

According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).

Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?

When using short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).

Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).

Long quotations

For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)

For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:

Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:

They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)

When citing long sections of poetry (four lines of verse or more), keep formatting as close to the original as possible.

In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:

The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We Romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself. (qtd. in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)

When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. If you cite more than one paragraph, the first line of the second paragraph should be indented an extra 1/4 inch to denote a new paragraph:

In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues,

Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. . . .

From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)

Adding or omitting words in quotations

If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text:

Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).

If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:

In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).

Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless they would add clarity.

When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem:

These beauteous forms,
Through a long absence, have not been to me
As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;
And passing even into my purer mind,
With tranquil restoration . . . (22-24, 28-30)

If you ever find yourself telling a story (or simply gossiping), you may need to quote what someone has said to you in Spanish. To do this, you will need to use el.

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

how do you quote what someone says in a quote

Quotations can make an article, press release or case study real, or they can make them deathly dull. As a writer, it’s your choice. You have complete control over how you quote people and a few simple techniques can make all the difference.

How to use quotations

It's essential you know how to write and format quotations properly, as well as how to find the best quotes. 

  • Go to the top. One reason to include a quotation is to add authority and credibility. Another is to include an opinion in a piece that is trying to be (or appear) objective. Either way, it pays to get the most senior person possible. A quote from a CEO is more credible and authoritative than one from some guy at the company’s PR firm.
  • One exception to the above rule is when writing about something inventive or techy – in this case it’s much better to get a quote from the top geek than the top suit. Finally, readers tend to believe people like themselves more than they believe journalists (at least in the UK) or PR people (anywhere) so a quote from someone who does something is better than a quote from someone who talks about it.
  • Don’t frankenquote. Don’t make up a quote for someone based on bits and pieces strung together in an epic hype-ridden cliché. This is a frankenquote. PR companies do this all the time in their press releases and every journalist knows that these quotes are bogus and virtually unusable. Interviews matter. Talk to real people. A good interview is the best source of a good quote.
  • Cut out the boring bits. A quotation can be a big stumbling block for the reader. They involve a lot of extra punctuation which slows the eye down and a change of tone and voice which can trip up someone who isn’t reading with perfect attention. You can minimise these effects by only quoting the bits that are interesting. Pick the bits of an interview that illustrate the point you are making, add weight to your story or which encapsulate the interviewee’s opinion. Use as little of the quotation as possible, but not less. Use an ellipsis (…) to show where you have removed padding.
  • Micro-quote. Sometimes a very, very short quote can be the most effective. “They get you in the gut,” said Matthew.
  • Hansard rules. For newspapers and magazines, editing quotations so that they differ from a verbatim transcript of the interview can be a no-no. In this case, selection rather than editing is sometimes required to get a good quote. For corporate work, where the final result will be reviewed by the interviewee or their proxies, a little editing can help. I don’t like to make stuff up (see Frankenquoting above) so I focus on trying sharpen and clarify the points that the interviewee was making. It also means writing what they meant to say, free of grammatical mistakes, repetition, hesitation etc.
  • Quote first, attribute second. Don’t start sentences with the attribution and then the quote. (e.g. “Matthew Stibbe said ‘don’t do it.’”)  This is a warning sign to the reader that a quote is coming and they are likely to skip it. Instead, open with the quote and tack on the attribution afterwards. (e.g. “’Don’t do it,’ said Matthew Stibbe.”) Never use an adverb when reporting a quotation. (e.g. don’t say “… said Matthew Stibbe angrily.”) Said is usually better than warned, advised, commented etc.
  • Continuing quotations. Within the same paragraph, you don’t need to attribute subsequent quotations unless you quote from someone else. In subsequent paragraphs, you should add the person’s name if you quote them again. Whether you use Mr. Surname, Firstname plus Surname or just the Surname depends on your house style but be consistent. I prefer just the surname. You don’t need to repeat that tedious ten-word job title every time. (You know the one that goes ‘Global Vice-President for Administrative Affairs and Popcorn.’) If you quote several people in the same article you may need to give the reader a clue about who you are quoting, for example by adding the company name. (e.g. “This should help the reader,” said Articulate’s Matthew Stibbe.”)
  • Reported speech. Sometimes reported speech is easier to add than a quotation. It lets you maintain your own writing style. You can write it more concisely and make it fit your line of argument. It’s also a nice change of pace for the reader. Don’t be afraid of it. Especially for short quotations.
  • Quotes as kickers. It’s very common in magazines to use the interviewee’s money quote as the kicker (final sentences or paragraph) of the article. It relives you of the responsibility of writing something pithy and clever. It also lets you close with an opinion without editorialising and hence satisfies most editors. For an example, check out this randomly-chosen Wired article which has two quotes as a kicker, one in quotation marks and one reported. A double-whammy.
  • Quotes as ledes. You can also use quotes to open a story. (A lede is the first sentence or sentences of an article.) Here, however, the challenge is to create suspense rather than resolve it. Quotes as ledes are rarer but if you get a good one, use it.

WATCH THE VIDEO ON THEME: Citing a direct quote in MLA format

You can also use commas when a quotation is interrupted by a phrase like “he said” or “she said.” In fact, you use two commas. For example.

how do you quote what someone says in a quote
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