limitations, not yours. When someone tells you it can't be done, it's more a reflection of Take a look at these amazing inspirational quotes. More information.
Definition:Quotation marks (") are used to show that an author is using someone else's exact words—they may be the words of a person, a character, or a written source.
Use quotation marks only when quoting someone's exact words, either spoken or written. This is called a direct quotation.
"I prefer my cherries chocolate covered," joked Alyssa.
Jackie kept repeating, "Good dog, good dog!"
"How long will it take you?" asked Mom.
Place the opening quotation mark where the speaker's words start, and the closing quotation mark where the speaker's words end.
"I have wanted to buy my own truck for a long time," said Jordan.
If a quotation is more than one sentence long, place the first quotation mark where the quote begins, and the second one at the end of the last sentence. It's not necessary to put quotation marks around each individual sentence in the quote.
"I have been saving money for two years. I almost have enough for the down payment," Micah told him.
It's also important to remember that quotation marks close and then open again if the quote is interrupted.
"I guess I should start saving money, then," replied Jordan, "if I am ever going to buy one."
Definition: An indirect quotation is a sentence that reports what a speaker said or wrote, but it does not use the person's exact words. Indirect quotations do not need quotation marks.The word that often indicates that the statement is an indirect quotation.
Alyssa joked that she preferred her cherries covered with chocolate.
Jackie told her dog that she was a good dog.
Sometimes it may be difficult to tell whether a statement is a direct or indirect quotation, but the verb tense and word order can give you some clues.
Indirect: Mom asked how long it would take us to get to the Grand Canyon.
Direct: Mom asked, "How long will it take us to get to the Grand Canyon?"
You would quote the original with an "as cited by" mention. For example. Writing in his The Perennial Pilosophy, Huxley quotes Eckhart: "He.
NOTE: (6/11/2013) The definitions of and in HTML have changed. For the latest advice on using these elements refer to cite and blockquote – reloadedGiven HTML’s roots in the academic world, it should be no surprise that quoting is well-accommodated in the elements and , with their optional attribute. In addition, there’s the element, which over the last nine years went from ‘semantic orphan element made good’ to one of the more contentious elements in HTML5. Let’s power up the endoscope and examine the scarring, starting with .
The element represents a section that is quoted from another source. — W3C HTML5 specificationEasy peasy, right? Nothing has really changed. Remember that as is a ‘block-level element’ (flow content) we can put most anything in it, including headers, images and tables, in addition to the usual paragraphs of text. There are a couple of slight differences in HTML5 though. is a sectioning root, meaning that any - elements it contains don’t become part of the document’s outline. Also, adding a single paragraph of text with no enclosing tags is now completely kosher. Here are some simple examples (apologies for the fake content): Historically, adding the source of a was a semantic conundrum. If you add it as content of the , then semantically it would become part of the quote, right? (and ) have a attribute for the URL of the quote’s source, to provide context. That’s hidden data, however, and despite the potential for exposing the attribute via CSS and/or JS, that’s not as useful as a visible link.
It seems our long-running convention at HTML5 Doctor of using for attribution inside a is actually non-conforming. However the phrase in the spec that prevents it also prevents other common block quoting patterns, so the spec will probably change. Read my article problems and solutions, and submit feedback via the WHATWG email list, the comments here or to be via Twitter (@boblet) — your feedback will influence how the spec changes! I’ll update this article after the change, but until then be aware for attribution in a isn’t strictly valid, and may not be in the future either. The spec currently recommends including attribution in content surrounding the .
Hixie has given his feedback on my email, and it seems like our citations are still invalid. The official recommendation is to put the blockquote in a figure and add attribution in . Read the whole thread as there are some interesting comments. I’ll wait for the dust to settle a little yet…
The element represents some phrasing content quoted from another source. — W3C HTML5 specificationThis means we can’t use for sarcasm or other non-quotation uses of quote marks (“”). In those cases, add punctuation manually. The spec continues:
Quotation punctuation (such as quotation marks) that is quoting the contents of the element must not appear immediately before, after, or inside elements; they will be inserted into the rendering by the user agent. — W3C HTML5 specificationAs with , you can also add a attribute with a URL for the quotation’s source (subject to the above caveats against hidden data). If you’re not using these extra features though, it’s a toss-up as to whether is any better than just adding punctuation characters like “” as you type. Okay, let’s see some specimens: Let’s examine how to style these elements next.
|Default punctuation¹||8.0 “” ‘’||1.5 “” ‘’||2.0 "" 4.0? "" ''||1.0? "" ''||4.0 “” ‘’|
|with Unicode escapes||8.0||1.5||5.1²||11.0²||4.0³|
|“||Left double quotation mark||\201C||-||+||+|
|”||Right double quotation mark||\201D||--||+||+|
|‘||Left single quotation mark||\2018||-||+||++|
|’||Right single quotation mark||\2019||--||+||++|
|«||Double left-pointing angle quotation mark||\00AB||-||+||+|
|»||Double right-pointing angle quotation mark||\00BB||--||+||+|
|‹||Single left-pointing angle quotation mark||\2039||--||+||-|
|›||Single right-pointing angle quotation mark||\203A||--||+||-|
|„||Double low-9 quotation mark||\201E||--||+||-|
|‚||Single low-9 quotation mark||\201A||-||-||-|
|Narrow no-break space||\202F||-||-||-|
If you’re using the UTF-8 (and you should be), we recommend you use the actual characters if possible, rather than the Unicode escapes in CSS or the entities in HTML. You can enter most of these using the keyboard — e.g. “ is - on Mac, + on Windows, and + on Linux. Avoid using ", ' or ` in place of “” and ‘’. The “narrow no-break space” is used inside French guillemets.Most languages alternate between two kinds of punctuation as quotes are nested, such as “” and ‘’ in English. To specify nested quote pairs in CSS, we would write this: Unfortunately, browsers use the last quote pair in the property for more deeply nested quotations. Make sure you have enough levels by repeating quote pairs as necessary: WebKit had "" and '' hard-coded in the browser stylesheet until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11, which prevented and from working. The workaround is to define opening and closing punctuation manually, then override with and . While it’s a little more involved, that’s why we use this CSS on HTML5 Doctor: A more traditional English style uses an opening quote character before each paragraph of the quotation and a closing quote character on the last paragraph. You can do that with this CSS, but you’ll need to use for the ’s content.
When quoting a foreign language, we use the quotation marks of the surrounding language, so a Japanese quote in an English sentence still uses English quotation marks:
All he knows how to say in Japanese is (I don’t understand).If you’re dealing with multilingual content, you can specify the property per-language: You can learn more about this CSS in the specification: CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. Okay, it’s time to put the rubber gloves on: is up next.
Cite: Contains a citation or a reference to other sources — HTML 4.01 specificationWe can define “citation” as:
As Harry S. Truman said… More information can be found in [ISO-0000]Sadly, an example of an academic-style citation wasn’t included. Some standardistas enthusiastically adopted for its semantics, with the high point being Mark Pilgrim’s epic “Posts by citation” (the results of which are now sadly 404’ed). In those heady days, was used in three main ways:
The cite element represents the title of a work (e.g. a book, a paper, an essay, a poem, a score, a song, a script, a film, a TV show, a game, a sculpture, a painting, a theatre production, a play, an opera, a musical, an exhibition, a legal case report, etc). This can be a work that is being quoted or referenced in detail (i.e. a citation), or it can just be a work that is mentioned in passing. — even if people call that person a piece of work — — W3C HTML5 specificationThis restriction has been somewhat … unpopular. Arguments for using for names (now summarised on the WHATWG wiki) were addressed by Ian Hickson, who decided that historical use wasn’t enough to justify the wooly definition. Jeremy Keith’s 24 Ways article “Incite A Riot” called for civil disobedience and HTML 4.01-style -ing, but the HTML5 spec has not changed. The inrs are irate that there are two use cases that ’s new definition leaves semantically unfilled — to mark up speakers in a transcript or dialog, and to indicate the speaker or author of an inline quote (). The HTML5 spec adds semantic insult to injury by saying:
In some cases, the element might be appropriate for names; e.g. in a gossip article … In other cases, if an element is really needed, the element can be used.By better defining , we increase the odds of getting usable data from it, though we now need different methods to cover these other uses. For now, it seems that these use cases aren’t specific enough to warrant new elements. Note that was never a general-purpose element for marking up a person. The still-born HTML 3.0 did try to introduce the element, but if you’ve ever used hCard to semantically mark up a person’s name, you’ll know that we’d need way more than just one element to do names justice. The POSH way of marking up a name is to use hCard (in microformats, microdata or RDFa), or just with a plain old link.
MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length. Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.
To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page number (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the in-text citation, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.
Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage, but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples:
According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.
According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184).
Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?
When using short (fewer than three lines of verse) quotations from poetry, mark breaks in verse with a slash, ( / ), at the end of each line of verse (a space should precede and follow the slash). If a stanza break occurs during the quotation, use a double slash ( // ).
Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11-12).
For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented ½ inch from the left margin while maintaining double-spacing. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples:
Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration:
They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
When citing long sections of poetry (four lines of verse or more), keep formatting as close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father:
The whiskey on your breath
Could make a small boy dizzy;
But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy.
We Romped until the pans
Slid from the kitchen shelf;
My mother's countenance
Could not unfrown itself. (qtd. in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202)
When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. If you cite more than one paragraph, the first line of the second paragraph should be indented an extra 1/4 inch to denote a new paragraph:
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues,
Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination. . . .
From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widening number of citizens into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity). . . . (3)
If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text:
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78).
If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipses, which are three periods ( . . . ) preceded and followed by a space. For example:
In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale . . . and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless they would add clarity.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem:
These beauteous forms,
Through a long absence, have not been to me
As is a landscape to a blind man's eye:
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart;
And passing even into my purer mind,
With tranquil restoration . . . (22-24, 28-30)
If you ever find yourself telling a story (or simply gossiping), you may need to quote what someone has said to you in Spanish. To do this, you will need to use el.
Quotations can make an article, press release or case study real, or they can make them deathly dull. As a writer, it’s your choice. You have complete control over how you quote people and a few simple techniques can make all the difference.
It's essential you know how to write and format quotations properly, as well as how to find the best quotes.
You can also use commas when a quotation is interrupted by a phrase like “he said” or “she said.” In fact, you use two commas. For example.