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How to write the reference

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How to write the reference
August 30, 2018 1st Anniversary Wishes 1 comment

EasyBib reference guide to book citation in APA format.

Welcome to Cite This for Me

About Cite This For Me

Cite This For Me is one of the most popular citation tools today. Launched in October 2010, we began with the mission of helping students create perfect citations in a fraction of the time. Since then, Cite This For Me has assisted millions of users across the world including in the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, and beyond.

Why Citing Matters

Citing isn’t something you usually think about, but it’s important nonetheless. Without even realizing it, you do it already in your everyday life in little ways. Have you ever said, “I heard on XYZ News that . . . ,“ or “I read in XYZ that those two celebrities are dating,” or even “Mom said that you can’t do that.” By saying where you got your information, you are casually citing a source.

We do this because it gives credibility to what we say, but also because it credits the originator of the information and allows others to follow up if they need more information. Formal citing done for papers and projects takes this a step further. In addition to the reasons mentioned above, citing sources in academia provides evidence of your research process and helps you avoid plagiarism.

Plagiarism is a word you never want to hear describing your work. You’ve probably seen headlines in the news and heard stories in school about the negative consequences of plagiarism. It’s not good but it is preventable. By visiting Cite This For Me to create citations, you’re taking steps to to help avoid this.

What Are You Citing?: Source Type Options

Do you know what you’re citing? Answering this question is usually the first step in creating a citation. On Cite This For Me, you can choose from a list of 30+ source types. It doesn’t matter if you’re citing a website, book, video, online image, or something totally different. Cite This For Me has you covered.

How Does This Work?

Immediately start citing by clicking on the website or journal article icon. If you’re using another source type, like book, click “More” to see all available options. From there, a form will pop up and show you all of the information you should look for in your source. Remember: the information for sources can vary (e.g. one photo may have a title, another photo may have none), so the forms do not require a completely filled out form to add a reference. You can create a citation at any time and also go back and edit it as many times as you want.

To help you save even more time and effort when citing websites, books, and journal articles, Cite This For Me will automatically find reference information and fill out some of the form for you. It sounds like a school myth but it’s true! When citing these sources, you start off with a search bar that assists you in finding the source you are referencing. Once you select the proper source from the listed results, you’ll be shown what information was and was not found, then taken directly to the form. Here you can confirm, edit, and add any information before adding the reference to your list—you’re always in control and have the final say on your references.

Choosing a Citation Style

Odds are, you’ve been given a specific citation style to use by your teacher, publication, editor, or colleague. (If not, try MLA format, APA citation, or Harvard referencing as they are the most popular.) Did you know there are literally thousands of citations styles in the world? Fortunately, Cite This For Me has a lot of them! In the navigation bar, click “2. Choose style” to open our citation style search widget and select the right style for you!

Citation Guides: Understanding it All

Beyond simply creating references or citations, most citation styles have additional guidelines about paper formatting, in-text citations, and other details. Cite This For Me citation guides covers a lot of this additional information, so your paper is more properly prepped and less likely to get points taken off for these details. The citation guides cover several citation styles, but the most popular are APA, Chicago Manual of style, MLA, Harvard referencing, Normas APA and Normas ABNT.

Take a Break & Learn: Read Our Blog

Citing is great, but it isn’t the most exciting thing in the world. If you’ve cited so much that your eyes are getting crossed, take a break and check out our blog! We cover questions about citing and writing that you’ve always wondered about, and you will have fun along the way. Keep up with the latest articles by following us on Facebook or Twitter.

Cite as You Search With Our Chrome Add-on

Use Google Chrome? If yes, add our intuitive Chrome add-on and gain the power to automatically cite a webpage when you’re actually on it! Whenever you are on a page you wish to use as a source, simply click the Cite This For Me extension button to generate a citation for it. It’s quick, easy, and free! Click here to get the add-on.

Finished and Ready to Go

Once you have completed your bibliography or reference list, it’s time to export it! You can copy and paste your citations from Cite This For Me into your paper, project, or document. If you’re looking to export it as a Word Doc, our premium features were designed for you.

Premium Cite This For Me Access

If you like to save work as you progress, dislike ads, and prefer to download your bibliography as a Word Doc, Cite This For Me premium access is perfect for you! In addition to the perks already mentioned, you’ll also gain access to our plagiarism check. It helps you identify any information that may still need a citation created for it. To sum it all up: Cite. Save. Download. Sign up by clicking here.

Create your citations, reference lists and bibliographies automatically using the APA, MLA, Chicago, or Harvard referencing styles. It's fast and free!.

How to Reference a Book in APA Format

how to write the reference

Xena Smythe
123 Main Street
Anytown, CA 12345
555-555-5555
xena.smythe@email.com

September 1, 2018

Alexandra Clement
Designs by Alex
123 Business Rd.
Business City, 54321

Dear Ms. Clement,

I am writing to you regarding Suzanne Element. I have known Suzanne personally for over ten years, and have always known her to be an organized and responsible individual. I believe that her skills and experience make her an excellent candidate for office manager in your organization.

When I met Suzanne, she had just left an administrative position in a busy Fashion House, where she was responsible for bookkeeping, answering phones, and making appointments. She took such pride in her work there and even developed strategies for making her bookkeeping more organized and efficient.

During the time I have known her, Suzanne has been active in our community, serving on the Library Board and the Historical Society. She has taken many responsible roles in both of these organizations; her contributions include acting as Secretary of the Library Board and heading the Historical Society's Annual Fund Drive. She achieved multiple successes in both of these positions. For example, as head of the Historical Society’s Fund Drive, she helped raise 28% more funds than the previous year. Much of this had to do with her success in getting and organizing dozens of volunteers. Her passion, combined with her organization, makes her an asset to any organization.

If you have any further questions, please feel free to contact me by phone or email.

Regards,

Xena Smythe

WATCH THE VIDEO ON THEME: Harvard referencing tutorial
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How to write a character reference: Personal reference example

how to write the reference

Writing references can be extremely time-consuming, but small-business owners and managers can minimize the time spent on references by creating a reference template, which has the added benefit of bringing a level of consistency to the process. Small-business owners may be concerned about liability issues involved with providing a reference, but in most states as long as the information provided is factual, job-related and given in good faith, an employer is typically protected from liability. A reference template can guide staff with respect to the job-related information provided and steer managers away from inadvisable subjects of discussion.

About the Author

For more than a decade, Tia Benjamin has been writing organizational policies, procedures and management training programs. A C-level executive, she has more than 15 years experience in human resources and management. Benjamin obtained a Bachelor of Science in social psychology from the University of Kent, England, as well as a Master of Business Administration from San Diego State University.

Photo Credits

  • Ablestock.com/AbleStock.com/Getty Images

The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work.

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

how to write the reference

For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here

This brief study guide aims to help you to understand why you should include references to the information sources that you use to underpin your writing. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.

Other useful guides: Effective note making, Avoiding plagiarism.

Why reference?

When you are writing an essay, report, dissertation or any other form of academic writing, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. It is essential that you acknowledge your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing your work allows the reader:

  • to distinguish your own ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of others;
  • to follow up in more detail the ideas or facts that you have referred to.

Before you write

Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text that you read. These details should include:

  • surname(s) and initial(s) of the author(s);
  • the date of publication;
  • the title of the text;
  • if it is a paper, the title of the journal and volume number;
  • if it is a chapter of an edited book, the book's title and editor(s)
    the publisher and place of publication*;
  • the first and last page numbers if it is a journal article or a chapter in an edited book.

For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference.

* Please note that the publisher of a book should not be confused with the printer. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too.

When to use references

Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.

Referencing styles

There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.

How to reference using the 'author, date' system

In the 'author, date' system (often referred to as the 'Harvard' system) very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. This allows the writer to fully acknowledge her/his sources, without significantly interrupting the flow of the writing.

1. Citing your source within the text

As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name(s) (surname only) of the author(s) and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text.

The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers (Lyon, 1992).

The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in 1992. An alternative format is shown in the example below.

Knapper and Cropley (1991: p. 44) believe that the willingness of adults to learn is affected by their attitudes, values and self-image and that their capacity to learn depends greatly on their study skills.

Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text (in this instance a book) and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made. You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work.

When a publication has several authors, it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. (an abbreviation of the Latin for 'and the others') although for works with just two authors both names may be given, as in the example above.

Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work. If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:

Figure 1: The continuum of influences on learning (from Knapper and Cropley, 1991: p. 43).

Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:

Table 1: Type of work entered by humanities graduates (data from Lyon, 1992: Table 8.5).

You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation.

Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks (Barker, 1996).

If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.

The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance (Maria Lorenzini, pers. comm.).

'Pers. comm.' stands for personal communication; no further information is usually required.

2. Reference lists/ bibliographies

When using the 'author, date' system, the brief references included in the text must be followed up with full publication details, usually as an alphabetical reference list or bibliography at the end of your piece of work. The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles.

Book references

The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above.

Knapper, C.K. and Cropley, A. 1991: Lifelong Learning and Higher Education. London: Croom Helm.

The reference above includes:

  • the surnames and forenames or initials of both the authors;
  • the date of publication;
  • the book title;
  • the place of publication;
  • the name of the publisher.

The title of the book should be formatted to distinguish it from the other details; in the example above it is italicised, but it could be in bold, underlined or in inverted commas. When multi-authored works have been quoted, it is important to include the names of all the authors, even when the text reference used was et al.

Papers or articles within an edited book

A reference to a paper or article within an edited book should in addition include:

  • the editor and the title of the book;
  • the first and last page numbers of the article or paper.

Lyon, E.S. 1992: Humanities graduates in the labour market. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 123-143.

Journal articles

Journal articles must also include:

 

  • the name and volume number of the journal;
  • the first and last page numbers of the article.

 

The publisher and place of publication are not normally required for journals.

Pask, G. 1979: Styles and strategies of learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 46, pp. 128-148.

Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. The name highlighted should always be the name under which the work will have been filed on the library shelves or referenced in any indexing system. It is often the name which is written on the spine of the volume, and if you remember this it may be easier for you to remember which is the appropriate title to highlight.

Other types of publications

The three examples above cover the most common publication types. You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. The same general principles apply to the referencing of all published sources, but for specific conventions consult your departmental handbook or your tutor, or look at the more detailed reference books listed in the Further reading section of this guide.

Referencing web pages

The internet is increasingly used as a source of information and it is just as important to reference internet sources as it is to reference printed sources.  Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet.   When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information.  A suggested format is to include the author of the information (this may be an individual, group or organisation), the date the page was put on the internet (most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page), the title, the http:// address, and the date you accessed the web page (in case the information has been subsequently modified).  A format for referencing web pages is given below.

University of Leicester Standing Committee of Deans (6/8/2002) Internet code of practice and guide to legislation. Accessed 8/8/02
http://www.le.ac.uk/committees/deans/codecode.html

Referencing lectures

Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:

Barker, G. 1996 (7 October): The Archaeology of Europe, Lecture 1. University of Leicester.

Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.

Formatting references

If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency.

How to reference using footnotes or endnotes

Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes (notes at the foot of the page) or endnotes (notes at the end of the work) to reference their writing. Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same.

Footnote or endnote markers, usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing (superscript), are placed at the appropriate point in the text. This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above.

Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate.¹ This view has been supported by an early study that demonstrated that graduates employed in the industrial and commercial sectors were as likely to have lower second and third class degrees as firsts and upper seconds.²

Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.

1. Moore, K. 1992: National Westminster Bank plc. In H. Eggins (ed.), Arts Graduates, their Skills and their Employment. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 24-26.

2. Kelsall, R.K., Poole, A. and Kuhn, A. 1970: Six Years After. Sheffield: Higher Education Research Unit, Sheffield University,
p. 40.

NB. The reference to 'p.40' at the end of note 2 above implies that the specific point referred to is to be found on page 40 of the book referenced.

If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used.

Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector. ³
-------------------------
3. Kelsall et al. 1970 (as n.2 above).

In this example, the footnote refers the reader to the full reference to be found in footnote 2.

In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor.

If you are studying with the School of Law, you are required to follow the conventions of OSCOLA (The Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities). Full details of how to use this system are provided by the School. Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard.

Finally

Whichever referencing system you use, you should check carefully to make sure that:

  • you have included in your reference list/bibliography, footnotes or endnotes full details of all the sources referred to in your text;
  • you have used punctuation and text formatting, such as italics, capitals, and bold text, in a consistent manner in your reference lists or footnotes.

Further reading

More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications:

  • Berry, R. 2004: The Research Project: How to Write It. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Gash, S. 1999: Effective Literature Searching for Students (second edition). Aldershot: Gower.
  • Gibaldi, J. 2004: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (sixth edition). New York: The Modern Language Association of America.
  • Watson, G. 1987: Writing a Thesis: a Guide to Long Essays and Dissertations. London: Longman.

There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references. They include the facility to incorporate 'author, date' insertions within your text, and to format reference lists automatically.

WATCH THE VIDEO ON THEME: How to List References

Are you writing a paper for which you need help on using the Harvard style? The examples show how to write references in-text and in reference lists based.

how to write the reference
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