A memorandum (memo for short) is a short piece of writing generally written by the officers of an organization for sharing information among.
The primary purpose of the business memorandum (commonly referred to as a memo) is to allow timely communication to a large number of employees or other members of an organization. The business memo is generally used in place of a traditional letter for internal communication, though memos may be used to communicate with individuals from other organizations in some instances.
Memos are used for a wide variety of purposes. They may be used to convey information such as policy changes, promotions or other personnel changes, a project status update, or increased offering of products and services. They can also be used to request that employees attend a meeting or make changes to work procedures or practices, or they can address a problem, such as employee tardiness or absence, or provide feedback on a product or program.
As you prepare to draft your memo, think about your intended audience, and send the memo only to those who need it. Also, be careful when communicating confidential information; a face-to-face meeting may be more appropriate in such circumstances.
The tone of a memo is generally fairly formal, so choose your wording appropriately. It is inappropriate to be too informal (using slang, for example), but don't be verbose or flowery, either. Conciseness and clarity in language are always best. Use active rather than passive voice whenever possible.
Memorandums generally consist of a heading section, an opening paragraph or section, the body section, and a closing paragraph or section.
The heading section identifies the recipients of the memo, the sender, the date the memo was sent, and the subject (or purpose) of the memo. In the heading, determine to whom you are going to send the letter (that is, your audience). Include all those who really need to receive the information, but don't include anyone who doesn't—doing so just wastes their time and your money. Make sure to spell names correctly and to include the complete name and correct titles of recipients. The subject line should be specific enough to convey the main purpose of the memo (for example, "Mandatory Employee Benefits Meeting on Friday, June 4" rather than "Meeting"). The heading generally looks like this:
TO: (recipients' names and job titles)
FROM: (your name and job title)
DATE: (current date)
SUBJECT: (purpose of the memo)
You may choose to include your initials after your name and job title in the "From" line to show that you approve the contents of the memo (if you asked someone else, such as a secretary or administrative assistant) to write it on your behalf) or to authenticate the letter.
The opening paragraph or section states the purpose of the memo. It is generally quite brief—usually, no more than a few sentences. If, for example, the memo is in response to a particular problem, state the problem clearly. If, on the other hand, the purpose of the memo is to introduce a new policy or to provide a project update, briefly state that fact. Save the details of the memo for the next section. For longer memos (memos longer than about a page), the opening section might begin with a brief overview of the rest of the document (you can also include this information in a separate "Summary" section above the opening paragraph; NAME THAT CONTENT OF SUMMARY??). Memos do not begin with a salutation.
In the body (or discussion) section of the memo, include any information the reader might need to know. The most important (and most specific) information should come first, followed by less important (and more general) information. Do not include information that is not important for readers, but let them know enough that they can understand the seriousness of the problem, the reasons for the change in policy, the research that was conducted that brought the problem to your attention, the details about the promotion, problems that could occur if action is not taken, the current status of the project, et cetera. Keep in mind that memos are meant to be brief (most are not longer than a page).
If you have included an attachment, such as a graph, chart, list, or a more detailed summary of research findings, you may want to identify it here if appropriate, or you can do so in the closing section.
For longer memos, use headings to help the reader quickly grasp the main points of the memo. If your memo is longer than a page, repeat the "To" line, the date, and the subject line on and add a page number to subsequent pages. Numbered and bulleted lists also allow the reader to scan information quickly. Try to keep sentences and paragraphs short and concise.
In the closing paragraph or section, indicate your recommendations, the action you want the reader to take, or (if no particular action is necessary) end the memo on a positive note. This section can often be very brief, but don't make it so brief that the reader is unclear about what he or she is supposed to do. Make sure to include enough information to clearly convey your request. If possible, include (or reiterate) the benefits the reader will receive by completing the action (such as improving office safety by following the new policy), and indicate anything you are doing or will do to help or make it easier for the reader complete the action.
If some readers may not have it, then you should include your contact information, such as your work phone number or e-mail address.
Traditionally, memos have not included signature lines. The practice of doing so is becoming more common, however. In such cases, the written signature is followed below by the typed name of the sender. No closing remark such as Sincerely or Best regards is necessary.
If you have included any attachments with your memo, identify them here. For example:
Attached: May 25 Training Seminar Agenda
Format the document so that paragraphs are flush left, and insert an extra hard return before the first opening paragraph, before each heading, and between paragraphs of text.
Written well, business memos are an efficient, effective way to communicate within an organization. For more information on business writing, see the articles Effective Business Writing and Writing an Effective Business Document.
A memo is a short message that businesses use to internally communicate official policy and procedures. An effective memo is concise, organized and timely.
A memo, or memorandum, is a written document business use to communicate an announcement or notification. While memos were once the primary form of written internal communication in a business, they are now commonly sent in the form of an email.
In this article, learn more about how to write a memo with tips you can use to ensure your memos are clear, concise and effective.
A memo is a short message that's typically used to communicate official business policies and procedures within a company. Memos are usually meant as a mass communication to all members of an organization rather than a one-on-one personal message.
For the most part, the purpose of writing a memo is to inform. However, memos can occasionally include a call to action or a persuasive element.
A few examples of when a memo might be useful include:
Memos are also an efficient way to communicate brief but important messages to a wide audience within the business. This can include product changes, meeting schedules, procedure changes, policy additions, summaries of agreement terms and reminders. Additionally, you can send a memo when you want your audience to print or save the information contained in the message in some way for later reference.
There are a few main types of memos you can write depending on your needs and the content of your message. Below are some of the most common types of memos.
While each memo should be written to address its unique needs, there are a few steps you can follow to create a clear, highly readable document. Like many other professional business documents, memos will include an introduction, body and conclusion.
If your intended recipients will need to refer to other information, such as a graph, image or chart, you can include it as an attachment below the end of your memo.
Here are several tips to consider to improve your memo:
Write a subject that is straightforward and clear. For example, if you need to send out a memo announcing the observance of a holiday, include the name and date of the holiday in your subject line. Send your memo at least a week before the event or due date so people have time to adjust their plans accordingly.
The following is a sample memo you can use as a guide for your next document:
To: Names of intended recipients
From: Your Name, Title
Date: Month Day, Year
Subject: Subject of the memo
Begin the memo with a sentence that describes the reason you are writing. It should be very short—about one or two sentences in length. The introduction should clearly state the purpose of the memo so the reader immediately understands what it is about. If the memo is meant to respond or follow up on a certain topic or situation, include that in the first paragraph.
- Bullet point to list important information.
- Bullet point to list important information.
- Bullet point to list important information.
Use the last few sentences to conclude your memo. Make sure you include a request for any action you need people to take after reading your memo.
[Your email address]
[Your phone number]
Attachment: Attachment of image, graph or chart that your intended recipients might need.
Memos are an important form of communication within a company. Now that you understand the memorandum definition and you have some clear tips on how to write a memo, you can create memos that will effectively communicate what you need people to know.
Thanks for the feedback!
Thanks for the feedback!
Have you ever wanted to disseminate information around the office or to your employees in your business? Then try coming up with a memo. Simply put, a memo is a short, concise message or document which is used for communication in an office or a business.
Memos are very important so you should know how to make a good memo template or business memo template so you can start spreading messages internally in your office or your business.
The most effective kinds of memos must be short, to the point, very organized and given on time. It should be able to give enough information that the reader won’t have any questions after reading it.
Memo has its origin from the Latin word memorandum, which is a noun and has the same root as the word memorare. Memorare then means to mention, recount or call to mind – which is also the similar definition of the word memory. This means that it can also serve as a reminder for people of something important.
In the office or business setting, memos are given to employees internally as a form of written communication. Information which must be formally documented is usually presented in the form of a memo to highlight its importance. There is a lot to learn about memos and in this article, you will learn all about the uses and purposes for giving out memos, types of memos as well as how to make your own business memo template. Read on and be guided by all you need to know about memos.
Before you start creating your own memo template, it would be useful to know what the general purposes of a memo are. Memos are formal documents used in an office or business setting to communicate with the employees.
Memos are mainly for internal communication and are very rarely given to clients, customers or the general public. It can easily be made in your computer though sample memo templates, which are available on this website.
Here are the most general purposes for giving out memos:
Memos can be used to give the employees information regarding upcoming events or the latest happenings related to the company, organization, business or the office. These kinds of news and events could be as simple as gatherings or fun events which are to be hosted or as relevant as an explanation for any changes which may be happening.
It could notify employees about any staff promotions or movement in departments or branches. It could also be about new products, merchandise or services that the business offers or those which have been phased out. Any new information can be given to the employees through a memo.
As with all organizations or businesses, issues or concerns may come up which need to be addressed especially when these concerns have caught the attention of the management. A memo can be used to describe all the details of the issue or concern to bring to light what needs to be dealt with and keep everyone involved informed. Too many absences or tardiness of employees’ can as well as employee misconduct are examples of such concerns which call for formal memos.
Memos can also be given to employees when the management needs to make requests from them. A request for consent or cooperation to do extra work, a request to attend important meetings or a request to make changes in work practices are some examples of memos made for making requests. These memos must also contain any instructions as well as all the details the employee needs to be able to fulfill the request made. You can also include benefits or rewards for carrying out the action or completing the task so that your employees would be more inclined to grant your request.
Feedback is essential in all kinds of organizations so you can use a memo to give your feedback on any products, services or even programs which have been done in the company. The purpose of giving a memo which provides feedback is that it lets the employees know all there is to know about the quality of the products as well as their performance. This is valuable so that employees know how to improve their performance or make changes in any products or services to make them more efficient for the clients and customers.
These are the most common and general purposes of a memo. As you can see, memos really are important so you can start thinking about making your own memo template word for your business. Now let’s move on to other uses of business memos.
Now e-mails are more popularly used to communicate within the office, but you should not discount the fact that memos are still vital and important for more formal information which needs to be documented using hard copies.
There are many types of memos and all these types and sample memo templates can be downloaded from the internet. But before you do so, let’s learn about when you should be using a business memo in your office or organization:
A lot of times, companies, businesses or organizations need to change their policies especially when they see that some policies don’t work or are already outdated. In cases like these, it would be appropriate to give a memo to all employees regarding any and all changes to the company. Giving out a business memo would formalize the changes and also give all the employees information on when the changes are to take place. Business memos about changes in company policies can be given to all the employees and also placed in an area which is visible to all.
When making important announcements, such as the promotion of old employees or the introduction of new employees, giving a business memo would be appropriate. This would ensure that any important announcements not only formally announced but are also documented. You can email announcements to make it a lot easier but you should still use a formal format when creating it.
Reminders are essential in any kind of business and when there are very important reminders to be given, you can use a business memo to spread the information. Such reminders would include a task which employees need to do before a deadline or a reminder on how employees must behave inside the office or the organization.
These are all the uses and purposes of memos and business memos. These uses should be enough to convince you that memos are crucial in companies and organizations and that you should start making use of them. Now let’s look at the different types of memos before you start creating your own memo template.
Coming up with a business memo template for your company would be a lot easier if you learn the different types of memos and all the details about them. Once you know all this information, you can start making a memo template word or you can look at online resources and work with sample memo templates.
Here are the different types of memos worth learning about:
This type of memo is commonly used in order to get a good response to any request made by the management thus it should be worded convincingly. An excellent request memo must contain the following information:
All these information and statements should be stated diplomatically to ensure that the employees will agree to the request.
This type of memo is created in order to formally validate an agreement which has been made as well as document it. This type of memo is important so that both parties are sure that the agreement is to be honored. A good confirmation memo should include:
Before finalizing your memo, it would be a good idea to show it to everyone involved to encourage any feedback or to clear up any vague or doubtful points.
These types of memos are disseminated regularly to give information about the company. These could be in the form of monthly or quarterly sales reports or such similar ones. Here are a few important points about these types of memos:
This is the easiest type of memo to use once you’ve already created the template as you won’t have to make it again and again.
Memos can also be used to put across different ideas and suggestions from employees or from the management. They could be suggestions on how to improve the workplace or ideas and suggestions on how to deal with issues or concerns. Here are some tips on making these types of memos:
Following these tips would ensure that your memo along with the suggestions that go with it would be effective and would give a positive note to it as you give the memo to your employees.
Sometimes studies are informally done in organizations and companies by certain personnel and everything about it should be written on a memo to inform everyone involved. These types of memos are usually presented as a form and should contain the following:
You can follow a format for these types of memos or you can come up with your own format, depending on what kind of study you are doing.
There you go, the 5 main types of memos which can be given in an office or an organization. Now that you have a lot of information about memos, we can move on to creating your own business memo template, which can be found in the next section.
Now that you know the uses and purposes of business memos, as well as the different types, you can already start creating your own template. You can either start with a simple template or make others as the need arises or you can go ahead and make templates for all the different types of business memos. It’s all up to you!
Here are some steps and tips in creating an efficient and official business memo:
Posted on September 20, 2017In Documents
The business memo is generally used in place of a traditional letter for internal It is inappropriate to be too informal (using slang, for example), but don't be.
We’ve previously learned that in order to choose a medium, you must consider your context, message, audience and purpose. Right now, the context is especially important because workplace communications is undergoing a shift. For the past 20 years, email has taken over many of the jobs once reserved for faxes, memos and letters. Now, instant messaging programs like Slack are taking over some of the work that email used to do. Social media has also taken over some of email’s job in the workplace. For example, many companies offer customer service over Twitter and Facebook.
Often, students want to learn the perfect way to write a memo or letter, or to have a template that they can fill out. But because the context is always changing, and because different workplaces have different practices, it’s not possible to say that there’s one correct way to write each document. Instead, we’re going to explore the different decisions that go into choosing a medium, and the different roles each medium plays in the workplace.
A memo (or memorandum, meaning “reminder”) is normally used for communicating policies, procedures, or related official business within an organization. It is often written from a one-to-all perspective (like mass communication), broadcasting a message to an audience, rather than a one-on-one, interpersonal communication. It may also be used to update a team on activities for a given project or to inform a specific group within a company of an event, action, or observance.
Memos can be tricky because they often communicate to multiple audiences who have different levels of knowledge about the context. For example, if you are communicating a new company policy, different types of employees will want to know exactly how the policy impacts them.
Memos are distinguished by a header that includes DATE, TO, FROM, and SUBJECT lines. Other lines, such as CC or BCC, may be added as needed. An RE (“Reference”) line may be used instead of SUBJECT, but this use is becoming rarer as “RE” is often mistaken as “Reply” because of its use in email.
These headings may be double- or single-spaced, and the SUBJECT line is often in all capital letters. Furthermore, the order of the items can vary. Many organizations have their own style preferences on these issues. If not, the order listed above, double-spaced, is the most common.
The text of memos typically uses block format, with single-spaced lines, an extra space between paragraphs, and no indentions for new paragraphs. However, if a report using memo format stretches to a few pages in length, double spacing may be used to improve its readability.
Professional communication forms are organized according to one of two strategies: Direct and indirect.
The direct approach is used for good news or routine communication; the indirect approach is used for persuasive, sales, or bad news messages.
A directly stated purpose is welcome in good news or routine messages but could be viewed as abrupt or insensitive in a bad news or persuasive message. When the audience is not receptive to the message, it is best to lead up to the purpose gradually.
In both types of organization, action information (such as deadlines or contact information) or a courteous closing statement is placed in the last paragraph.
|Organization Strategy||Definition||Type of Document||Content|
|Direct||Writer arrives at purpose quickly, sometimes in the first sentence.||Used for good news or routine communication (audience is receptive or neutral)||Purpose||Details||Action information or courteous close|
|Indirect||Writer gradually builds up to the purpose, which is stated in the body.||Used for negative, persuasive, or sales messages (audience is not receptive)||Relevant, attention-getting statements||Purpose statement is sandwiched by details.||Action information or courteous close|
Let’s take a look at a sample direct memo.
As you can see, this memo has a direct and concise opening that states the purpose of the memo. The body paragraph provides the award criteria, which will help managers follow through on the request. The conclusion provides action information, a deadline and a courteous closing message.
Now, let’s take a look at a sample indirect memo.
As you can see, the introduction is relevant to the subject but doesn’t directly state the bad news, which is that the popular early weekend schedule is ending. Instead, the writer lists the reasons for the change to prepare the reader mentally for it. The bad news is then clearly stated, but it’s sandwiched between two positive statements. Note that the bad news is at the end of the paragraph, since the writer doesn’t want readers to skim the memo and miss this important information. The memo then ends with action information and a forward-looking statement.
While memo reports and policy memos are examples of documents that have a more formal tone, most memos will have a conversational style—slightly informal but still professional. The audience of memos are those with whom the writer works, so the writing style usually assumes a relationship with them (and therefore a certain lack of formality); just keep in mind that the relationship is a professional one, so the writing should reflect that. Furthermore, as with all workplace documents, the audience may contain a variety of readers, and the style and tone should be appropriate for all of their technical and authority levels.
|Too Informal||Too Formal, Stuffy-Sounding, Wordy||Appropriate Balance|
|Hi, everyone. Hope you had a great weekend. You know those awards we give out every so often? It’s time for those again!||Variety Craft Supplies’ mission is to provide customers with affordable, quality supplies with superb customer service. Excellent customer service includes being knowledgeable about the supplies, but it also goes beyond that. It’s about having the right attitude about helping customers. It’s time to reward employees who have a customer-oriented outlook.|
Please submit your nominations for the quarterly Customer Service Excellence Award by April 8. Help us identify great employees!
Memos are used in a variety of workplace communication situations, from documentation of procedures and policies to simple announcements. Below are some common types of memos:
Memos may be distributed manually through print medium in organizations in which not all employees have access to email. Organizations with access to email may distribute memos as attachments to email.
In organizations in which email reaches every employee (or every employee in the memo’s audience), writers must determine whether to send a memo or an email message to convey their information. In cases such as this, writers should consider three factors: the nature of the message, the depth/number of its details, and its likelihood of being printed for easier reference. These types of messages should be written up in memo format and attached to an email message for fast (and environmentally friendly) distribution:
*Some articles are used across multiple genres and disciplines.
Email is typically quite familiar to most students and workers. While it may be used like text messaging, or synchronous chatting, and it can be delivered to a cell phone, email remains an asynchronous communication tool. In business, email has largely replaced print hard copy letters for external (outside the company) correspondence, as well as taking the place of memos for internal (within the company) communication (Guffey, 2008). Email can be very useful for messages that have slightly more content than a text message, but it is still best used for fairly brief messages.
Many businesses use automated e-mails to acknowledge communications from the public or to remind associates that periodic reports or payments are due. You may also be assigned to “populate” a form email in which standard paragraphs are used, but you choose from a menu of sentences to make the wording suitable for a particular transaction.
The rise of email management systems like MailChimp and Constant Contact have also made it easy to integrate graphic design elements into emails and to send emails to an entire mailing list without getting caught in a spam filter. Now, businesses send everything from newsletters to donations campaigns to holiday greetings through email.
Emails may be informal in personal contexts, but business communication requires attention to detail, awareness that your email reflects you and your company, and a professional tone so that it may be forwarded to any third party if needed. Email often serves to exchange information within organizations. Although email may have an informal feel, remember that when used for business, it needs to convey professionalism and respect. Never write or send anything that you wouldn’t want read in public or in front of your company president or CEO.
If you’re struggling to write an email, err on the side of not wasting the reader’s time. Many readers get hundreds of emails a day. While a reader might sit down to read a letter or a memo, they will usually spend a few seconds scanning an email for relevant information before moving on to the next one.
Unless your email is sensitive or you are breaking bad news, it’s nearly always a good idea to state the main point of the email clearly and to clearly tell the audience what you want them to do.
It may be helpful for you to think of this as building a frame around your email. In the first part of the frame, you open by telling the reader why you’re writing. Then, in the body, you give the main message. In the bottom part of the frame, you end by telling the reader what to do next. Here’s an example. The grey shaded parts represent the frame.
Frame: I’m writing to congratulate you on being named Employee of the Month.
In your nomination form, your manager noted that you’ve always had exceptional customer service skills, but last month you stood out by helping an elderly customer troubleshoot her computer issues. Your patience and dedication was inspirational to the rest of the team.
Frame: We would like to present you with a certificate and your $100 cheque at the staff meeting on Monday, June 5th. Please confirm whether or not you’ll be in attendance so we can plan accordingly.
Congratulations once again. We are lucky to have you part of our team!
First, the writers tells exactly why they’re writing. Then, they provide the supporting details. Last, they tell the reader what to do (confirm whether or not they’ll be at the meeting).
Here are some more tips for sending successful emails:
To: Harriet Adamo, Physical Plant Manager, XYZ Corporation
From: Mel Vargas, Construction Site Manager, Maxim Construction
Sent: Monday, 10/25/2019 8:14 AM
Subject: Construction Interruptions
I know employees of XYZ Corp. are looking forward to moving into the new ABC Street building in January, but recently groups of employees who do not have business here have been walking through the building. These visits create a safety hazard, interrupt the construction workers, and could put your occupancy date in jeopardy.
Would you please instruct your staff members who haven’t already been moved to ABC Street to stay out of the building? If they need to meet here with someone who has already moved, they should conduct their business and leave promptly via the nearest staircase.
We need to avoid further interruptions so our construction workers can get the building ready for occupancy on schedule. If you have any questions, please call me.
Melvin R. Vargas
Construction Site Manager, Maxim Construction Co.
1234 Main St, Big City, Canada
(111) 222-3333 ext. 4444
We create personal pages, post messages, and interact via mediated technologies as a normal part of our lives, but how we conduct ourselves can leave a lasting image, literally. The photograph you posted on your Instagram page may have been seen by your potential employer or that nasty remark in a Facebook post may come back to haunt you later. Several years ago, when the internet was a new phenomenon, Virginia Shea laid out a series of ground rules for communication online that continue to serve us today.
It is also important to remember to keep your public persona online as professional as possible and to familiarize yourself with the privacy settings of the social media platforms you use.
Letters are brief messages sent to recipients that are often outside the organization (Bovee & Thill, 2010). They are often printed on letterhead paper and represent the business or organization in one or two pages. Shorter messages may include e-mails or memos, either hard copy or electronic, while reports tend to be three or more pages in length.
While e-mail and text messages may be used more frequently today, the business letter remains a common form of written external communication. All business messages have expectations in terms of language and format. The audience or reader also may have their own idea of what constitutes a specific type of letter, and your organization may have its own format and requirements. There are many types of letters, and many adaptations in terms of form and content. In this chapter, we discuss the fifteen elements of a traditional block-style letter.
Letters may serve to introduce your skills and qualifications to prospective employers, deliver important or specific information, or serve as documentation of an event or decision. Regardless of the type of letter you need to write, it can contain up to fifteen elements in five areas. While you may not use all the elements in every case or context, they are listed in Table 4.2.1.
Table 4.2.1 Elements of a business letter
|1. Return address||This is your address where someone could send a reply. If your letter includes a letterhead with this information, either in the header (across the top of the page) or the footer (along the bottom of the page), you do not need to include it before the date.|
|2. Date||The date should be placed at the top, right or left justified, five lines from the top of the page or letterhead logo.|
|3. Reference (Re:) *optional||Like a subject line in an e-mail, this is where you indicate what the letter is in reference to, the subject or purpose of the document.|
|Sometimes you want to indicate on the letter itself how it was delivered. This can make it clear to a third party that the letter was delivered via a specific method, such as certified mail (a legal requirement for some types of documents).|
|5. Recipient note *optional||This is where you can indicate if the letter is personal or confidential.|
|6. Salutation||A common salutation may be “Dear Mr. (full name).” If you are unsure about titles (i.e., Mrs., Ms., Mr., Mx., Dr.), you may simply write the recipient’s name (e.g., “Dear Cameron Rai”) followed by a colon.A comma after the salutation is correct for personal letters, but a colon should be used in business.The salutation “To whom it may concern” is appropriate for letters of recommendation or other letters that are intended to be read by any and all individuals. If this is not the case with your letter, but you are unsure of how to address your recipient, make every effort to find out to whom the letter should be specifically addressed. For many, there is no sweeter sound than that of their name, and to spell it incorrectly runs the risk of alienating the reader before your letter has even been read. Avoid the use of impersonal salutations like “Dear Prospective Customer,” as the lack of personalization can alienate a future client.|
|7. Introduction||This is your opening paragraph, and may include an attention statement, a reference to the purpose of the document, or an introduction of the person or topic depending on the type of letter. An emphatic opening involves using the most significant or important element of the letter in the introduction. Readers tend to pay attention to openings, and it makes sense to outline the expectations for the reader up front. Just as you would preview your topic in a speech, the clear opening in your introductions establishes context and facilitates comprehension.|
|8. Body||If you have a list of points, a series of facts, or a number of questions, they belong in the body of your letter. You may choose organizational devices to draw attention, such as a bullet list, or simply number them. Readers may skip over information in the body of your letter, so make sure you emphasize the key points clearly. This is your core content, where you can outline and support several key points. Brevity is important, but so is clear support for main point(s). Specific, meaningful information needs to be clear, concise, and accurate.|
|9. Conclusion||An emphatic closing mirrors your introduction with the added element of tying the main points together, clearly demonstrating their relationship. The conclusion can serve to remind the reader, but should not introduce new information. A clear summary sentence will strengthen your writing and enhance your effectiveness. If your letter requests or implies action, the conclusion needs to make clear what you expect to happen. This paragraph reiterates the main points and their relationship to each other, reinforcing the main point or purpose.|
|10. Close||“Sincerely” or “Cordially” are standard business closing statements. Closing statements are normally placed one or two lines under the conclusion and include a hanging comma, as in Sincerely,|
|11. Signature||Five lines after the close, you should type your name (required) and, on the line below it, your title (optional).|
|12. Preparation line||If the letter was prepared or typed by someone other than the signatory (you), then inclusion of initials is common, as in MJD or abc.|
|13. Enclosures (attachments)||Just like an e-mail with an attachment, the letter sometimes has additional documents that are delivered with it. This line indicates what the reader can look for in terms of documents included with the letter, such as brochures, reports, or related business documents. Only include this line if you are in fact including additional documentation.|
|14. Courtesy copies or “CC”||The abbreviation “CC” once stood for carbon copies but now refers to courtesy copies. Just like a “CC” option in an e-mail, it indicates the relevant parties that will also receive a copy of the document.|
|15. Logo and contact information||A formal business letter normally includes a logo or contact information for the organization in the header (top of page) or footer (bottom of page).|
A sample letter, illustrating the parts of the letter, is shown in Figure 4.2.1.
Figure 4.2.1. A sample letter.
Your instructor may ask you to complete one or more of the following exercises.
Choose one of the following scenarios, then write an email, memo or letter as a response. Think about what genre would be most effective, then use the models discussed in the chapter to write your response.
Bovee, C., & Thill, J. (2010). Business communication essentials: A skills-based approach to vital business English (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Guffey, M. (2008).Essentials of business communication(7th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson/Wadsworth.
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This chapter contains material taken from Introduction to Professional Communications is (c) 2018 by Melissa Ashman and is licensed under a Creative Commons-Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license.
This chapter also contains material taken from Memos, which is published on WritingCommons.org. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License
Before we begin, consider the following questions. Your instructor may ask you to freewrite about one or more of these questions in your learning journal.
Date: March 18, 2019
To: Department Managers
From: Safiyya Dev, Store Manager
Subject: Customer Service Excellence Nominations
Please submit your nominations for the quarterly Customer Service Excellence Award by April 8. Help us identify great employees!
Do you have an employee who you feel fortunate to have in your department? Does this employee show a positive and professional attitude when helping customers? Do you get frequent comments about this person’s friendliness and helpfulness? Now, you have an opportunity to give this employee the recognition they deserve.
According to the nomination criteria, nominees must:
The winner of the award will receive a framed certificate and a $100 check.
A nominating form is attached. Please complete and return it to me by Monday, April 8. Thank you for your help in identifying and rewarding excellent customer service representatives.
Date: Feb. 25, 2019
To: All Employees
From: Jaspreet Kaur
Subject: Change in Operating Hours
Our call centre has been experimenting with a half-day Friday work schedule over the last year, and we’ve recently conducted an evaluation to determine how well the program is working.
When a client calls to order their diabetic supplies on Friday afternoon, our messaging system directs them to complete their order on our company website. While many customers are willing and able to do this, many do not have Internet access (hence the reason for their call in the first place). Their only other option is to wait until Monday to place the order, and if a customer is already low on supplies, this may be untenable. Customers who are calling with questions or to resolve issues with an order must also wait for Monday.
We have received positive comments, especially from our West Coast customers, about the extended hours we are open in the evening. We have determined that to continue to offer quality service, we must also re-institute Friday afternoons.
However, that does not mean that we cannot continue to offer employees some scheduling perks. In fact, the addition of later hours Monday through Thursday provides us with more leeway in scheduling employees.
We will have a staff meeting on Monday, March 4 at 8:00 a.m. to discuss new scheduling procedures. To the extend possible, we wish to accommodate employees’ preferences in scheduling, so it is important to attend this meeting to have your voice heard.
The business memorandum is essentially an "internal" business letter that does not go outside of an organization. (as opposed to letters, which do go to.