Learn must-know tips about how to use appropriate language in speaking and writing. Avoid comments, generalizations, examples, or jokes that affirm or.
Learn about the movement that uses energy efficient and environmentally sustainable technology to achieve the desired benefits of modern technology.
Appropriate technology is an ideological movement that involves small-scale, labor-intensive, energy efficient, environmentally sound, people-centered, and locally controlled projects.
In addition, this method uses open-source knowledge, meaning there must be transparency in the process and outcome, and this information must be shared to ensure it is replicable.
Appropriate technology is a critique to GDP-focused measures of growth and is meant to address four major problems GDP-growth does not cover: extreme poverty, starvation, unemployment, and urban migration.
Commonly discussed as a form of economic development, this type of sustainable technology is an alternative to technology transfer from developed to developing countries. Technology transfer is often patronizing, with one party telling the other what to do and what they need, while appropriate technology places both parties on an equal level.
It is also important to note that the movement exists in both developed and developing nations, and can take on a variety of appearances.
Furthermore, this movement uses both hard and soft technologies. A hard technology is related to a certain type of goal and involves machinery, structures, and engineering methods. Soft technology creates behaviors that bring about change and involve human interactions and motivations.
It is also important to point out that there are many different technologies associated with appropriate technology, such as indigenous technology. Indigenous people have a very specific way of deciding whether to integrate a new technology into their lives or not, which would likely qualify that technology as appropriate.
On the other hand, the developed world tends to assume that all technology is progress. This often leaves out important externalities and side effects of the new technology and its development, such as environmental and social impacts. Thus, we need to take a step back and better analyze whether new technologies are appropriate or not.
Mahatma Gandhi is thought of as the father of the movement, developing the concept of village-based technology, though there was no name for it at the time.
Economist Dr. Ernst Friedrick “Fritz” Schumacher coined the concept of appropriate technology in 1962, yet called it intermediate technology.
Interestingly, Schumacher’s first project, for the Indian government, was denied both by the recipients and other leading economists. It did not take long for the concepts to gain support, after a 1965 Observer article. Shortly after, in 1968, the name changed to its current nomenclature, appropriate technology.
A decline in the movement’s popularity is attributed to the growth in popularity of the “lassez-faire,” or free-market, view of economics.
Composting toilets are dry-flush toilets whose decomposition process is faster than that of traditional wet toilets. They can use natural deodorizers and liquid absorbers such as peat moss. They are typically used in places without access to plumbing and water sanitation facilities and are relatively simple to install and maintain.
For the Achuar, our indigenous partners in the Ecuadorian Amazon, installing composting toilets was part of a clean water program spear-headed by the Jungle Mamas program. The Jungle Mamas program is a collaboration between The Pachamama Alliance and Fundación Pachamama and is aimed at ending preventable deaths of mothers and children by improving community health through female education, environmental health, and family planning.
Learn more about collaboration between The Pachamama Alliance and Fundación Pachamama
The Achuar have only lived in settled communities since the late 1960s, and were semi-nomadic before. Thus, with the major lifestyle change came issues with water sanitation, which led to increasing rates of infant mortality. Composting toilets were a logical choice, for they would help them improve local sanitation issues without damaging their pristine environment. It was a choice geared towards preserving their traditional ways of life while improving their standards of living in a socially responsible manner. Their commitment to the health of their people and their natural environment has led to other positive health project choices as well.
The Jungle Mamas program received iPads in order to assist the Achuar in communicating between their far-flung communities through video.
The interactive nature of the iPads allows for the Achuar to film and edit videos on their own, without outside help other than introductory training sessions. Solar-powered chargers allow them to be sustainable and environmentally friendly.
The iPads were originally intended to assist the creation of Jungle Mamas training videos to help spread the program to more distant communities who demanded its presence. The iPads containing the videos would be exchanged on flights already being taking by indigenous elders and community leaders, creating no extra transportation cost.
Given the threat of new oil development on their ancestral land, however, the Achuar enthusiastically adopted the iPads to communicate ideas and information about preventing oil development on their territory. Since their remote communities do not have access to mail systems or the internet, the iPads have helped strengthen their national identity and cohesion as the Achuar people at an incredibly crucial time.
The Achuar needed an environmentally friendly way to travel through their rainforest home, and decided that solar-powered canoes would be a good option. To build a solar-powered canoe, solar panels are installed on the roof of the canoe, with charging batteries stored inside the body of the canoe, which powers the motor noiselessly.
The Achuar live in a pristine, bio-diverse region of the Amazon, crisscrossed by rivers, so they do not have, need, or want roads. Solar-powered canoes help them travel to distant communities without damaging or disturbing their natural environment. The noiseless motor does not disrupt their sensitive ecosystem.
These canoes meet the Achuar people’s needs for transport and a petroleum-free future, making solar energy an excellent sustainable development alternative. Solar-powered canoes and boats have a great potential to be replicated around the world.
Jungle Mamas also supported a solar-pumped water system for the Achuar community of Kurintsa. The goal was to bring water to each family without complex plumbing systems, and they were able to do that using solar powered pumps attached to a spigot for each family. At the moment the water is not potable, but Jungle Mamas will educate the community on how to keep streams clean. They also have begun installing compostable toilets there as well, all as part of the clean water program.
Oil development in the pristine Amazon rainforest is an example of a development project that is not appropriate technology. While the ILO Convention 169 requires informed, prior consent for any development projects on indigenous land, that is often not the case. Often, the indigenous people are informed when the project is already beginning, or are told false or misleading information. That in itself disqualifies it as appropriate technology.
Another pillar of the movement is environmental soundness, which again disqualifies oil development in the Amazon. Oil projects have contaminated rivers and other water sources of the people, poisoning and killing plants, animals, and humans. Oil development projects are not only destructive, but large-scale, again disqualifying it as sustainable technology. They often employ non-local labor, and most all of the benefits are seen by outsiders as well, leaving the locals with the negative externalities. Thus, we can safely say that sustainable, eco-friendly alternatives that utilize local power and have local consent should be sought out instead of oil development projects.
Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, in general, is not sustainable method. Fracking is a technology used to release natural gas from shale bedrocks. Fracking involves of pumping a high pressure liquid consisting of water and 590 different chemicals which create lots of cracks—and small earthquakes!—in the rock to release the gas. The chemicals leach into drinking water sources and use seven million gallons of water per session, making it very wasteful and environmentally unfriendly.
Additionally, like oil development, fracking is not a small-scale project. Instead, it is large and incredibly destructive, inflicting harm on the communities surrounding the fracking site. Furthermore, many people oppose fracking and have protested it in their communities. For example, in New York anti-fracking advocates including actor Mark Ruffalo organized around the cause and pushed for a one year moratorium on fracking and won. They are continuing to fight to end fracking in their state for good.
Given the nature of our consumerism-driven economy, there are many things in Western society which are frivolous and likely not appropriate technology. It is worthwhile for us to examine our own lives to determine what is appropriate and what is not.
Often, we bring technology into our lives or homes or offices because it’s “what you do,” or because we equate technology with progress. It can be useful to stop and ask ourselves, “What is most important to me in life? Does this technology help me achieve it? Does this technology create harm?”
For example, many households have multiple TVs, yet many people also say that spending more time with their partner or children is very important in their lives. In fact, 68% of parents say money gets in the way of spending more time with family, while 66% of children are more happy spending time with their family than going out. Perhaps spending less money on needless goods and placing a greater value on family would benefit society.
Before buying that additional TV, ask yourself if doing so will help you achieve your wish of spending time with your loved ones, and what sort of harm the production of that TV may have caused to other life. It may become clear that the trade-off is not worth it to you.
You may also consider what are sustainable technologies for your community. For example, does your community have a dam? Did you consider the area that was flooded and the people who were displaced for its construction? Or the damage that could be caused if the levees broke?
No choice will be completely without harm just as no choice will be completely without benefit. What’s important is that we examine our common assumptions, become truly aware of what is going on around us, and create our world mindfully and intentionally.
right or suited for a particular situation. Examples of Appropriate in a sentence. 1. Her speech on retirement was appropriate for her middle-aged audience.. 2.
One of the most important things you can do as an employee and colleague is to use appropriate language in the workplace. In the business world, making a good impression and projecting yourself as mature, intelligent, confident, and professional is critical to long-term success. Inappropriate language, whether spoken or written, can negatively affect your credibility and put off or even offend those you work with. Both in speech and in writing, take the time and make the effort to use appropriate language.
1. Use standard English and follow established rules of grammar
No matter who your audience is, in the workplace you should always use standard English (the form of English taught in schools and used in most texts, government documents, media publications, and the like) in your speech and writing. If you are from an area where nonstandard English is common and you use nonstandard English yourself, make a conscious effort to speak standard, grammatical English. Pay attention to the way other professionals speak and write at work, and you will begin to notice ways that you can improve your own speech and writing.
2. Use a level of formality appropriate for your audience.
When conversing in less formal situations or when writing less formal correspondence, you can use less formal English, but still remain respectful and professional at all times.
3. Do not use profanity.
Swearing is never acceptable in the workplace.
4. Avoid biased or derogatory comments
Do not use sexist language or language that is biased against any racial, ethnic, religious, age, or other group. Avoid comments, generalizations, examples, or jokes that affirm or perpetuate negative stereotypes. (For more information on avoiding biased language, see the article "Writing without Bias.")
5. Avoid slang.
You should generally avoid slang in the workplace—even words or expressions that are commonly accepted in other settings. Be judicious in your use of idiomatic expressions, and particularly regionalisms, as well.
6. Be cautious when using jargon.
Jargon should be used sparingly, and only when speaking or writing to an audience that will be familiar with the terms used. If you feel it is appropriate to use jargon for a more general audience, make sure you define the terms used.
7. Be polite.
Your mother's instructions about using please and thank you are just as important in the business world as they were at the dinner table. You will be able to accomplish more and will undoubtedly have better relationships with co-workers and colleagues if you treat them respectfully and show sincere appreciation by using courtesy words.
8. Take a class.
To learn even more about using appropriate language and about writing and speaking well in the workplace, you can take a class or attend a workshop or seminar on communicating effectively in the business world.
The suggestions above will help you to use appropriate language in the workplace. By following these principles, you'll make a good impression and you will be known as a professional, courteous employee and colleague.
As a writer, you do not want inappropriate word choice to get in the way of your message. For this reason, you need to strive to use language that is accurate and appropriate for the writing situation. Learn for yourself which words you tend to confuse with each other. Omit jargonVocabulary of a special group or profession. (technical words and phrases common to a specific profession or discipline) and slangPlayful, informal vocabulary, often recently invented and specific to a certain group. (invented words and phrases specific to a certain group of people), unless your audience and purpose call for such language. Avoid using outdated words and phrases, such as “dial the number.” Be straightforward in your writing rather than using euphemismsSubstitution with a gentler way of expressing something. (a gentler, but sometimes inaccurate, way of saying something). Be clear about the level of formality needed for each different piece of writing and adhere to that level.
Words in homophone sets are often mistaken for each other. (See Chapter 19 "Mechanics", Section 19.1.3 "Homophones" for more about homophones.) Table 17.1 "Commonly Confused Words" presents some examples of commonly confused words other than homophones. You will notice that some of the words in the table have similar sounds that lead to their confusion. Other words in the table are confused due to similar meanings. Keep your personal list handy as you discover pairings of words that give you trouble.
Table 17.1 Commonly Confused Words
Jargon and slang both have their places. Using jargon is fine as long as you can safely assume your readers also know the jargon. For example, if you are a lawyer, and you are writing to others in the legal profession, using legal jargon is perfectly fine. On the other hand, if you are writing for people outside the legal profession, using legal jargon would most likely be confusing, and you should avoid it. Of course, lawyers must use legal jargon in papers they prepare for customers. However, those papers are designed to navigate within the legal system.
You are, of course, free to use slang within your personal life, but unless you happen to be writing a sociolinguistic study of slang itself, it really has no place in academic writing. Even if you are writing somewhat casual responses in an online discussion for a class, you should avoid using slang or other forms of abbreviated communication common to IM (instant messaging) and texting.
Some writers choose to control meaning with flowery or pretentious language, euphemisms, and double-talkTalk that includes extra verbiage in an effort to camouflage the message.. All these choices obscure direct communication and therefore have no place in academic writing. Study the following three examples that clarify each of these misdirection techniques.
|Technique||Example||Misdirection Involved||Straightforward Alternative|
|Flowery or pretentious language||Your delightful invitation arrived completely out of the blue, and I would absolutely love to attend such a significant and important event, but we already have a commitment.||The speaker seems to be trying very hard to relay serious regrets for having to refuse an invitation. But the overkill makes it sound insincere.||We are really sorry, but we have a prior commitment. I hope you have a great event.|
|Euphemisms||My father is follicly challenged.||The speaker wants to talk about his or her father’s lack of hair without having to use the word “bald.”||My father is bald.|
|Double-talk||I was unavoidably detained from arriving to the evening meeting on time because I became preoccupied with one of my colleagues after the close of the work day.||The speaker was busy with a colleague after work and is trying to explain being tardy for an evening meeting.||I’m sorry to be late to the meeting. Work ran later than usual.|
Look at the following three sentences. They all three carry roughly the same meaning. Which one is the best way to write the sentence?
If you said, “It depends,” you are right! Each version is appropriate in certain situations. Every writing situation requires you to make a judgment regarding the level of formality you want to use. Base your decision on a combination of the subject matter, the audience, and your purpose for writing. For example, if you are sending a text message to a friend about going bowling, the formality shown in example three is fine. If, on the other hand, you are sending a text message to that same friend about the death of a mutual friend, you would logically move up the formality of your tone at least to the level of example two.
Appropriate Technology is a concept that refers to improvements and developments to Example of Appropriate Technology: Barefoot College Solar Engineers.
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Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, Definition of appropriate verb from the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary.